TOBIANO............. The most common coat pattern.
Vertically falling (top to bottom) white pattern with generally smooth edges & mostly even on both sides. The pattern can range from predominantly dark through to almost all white.
Mane & tail generally two tone, hoofs generally white or striated. Face markings can range from none at all through to bald or 'clown' face.
Legs are usually white but the amount of white can vary along with the body colour(minimum to maximum white). Ermine spots on legs & body sometimes occur. These are sometimes referred to as 'ink' or 'mink' spots.
FRAME OVERO..........Least common pattern (especially in Pinto's)
White presents in a horizontal(front to back) pattern. Horse is predominantly dark with minimal or no leg markings. The white will appear on the neck & the brisket area & is usually mirrored on both sides. White does NOT cross the spine from the poll to the dock. Mane & tail are solid coloured & hoofs generally dark.Normal facial markings but no white on chin/jaw.
This coat pattern was created from a genetic defect & carries lethal white syndrome where foals are born white but die within 48hrs of birth. The defect is in the colon. Refer to registrar for info.
SABINO............ This gene causes white markings on all horses in varying amounts & is not a "colour" as such.
White rises vertically (bottom to top) with long white stockings spearing up towards the belly,which can have white patches ,the edges of which will generally have a lacey appearance. The white can be minimal - one stocking spearing upwards, blaze & white under chin- to maximal - completely white, but not lethal as Sabino is a naturally occurring gene. Most Sabino's do not have enough white for Pinto registration. For reference, all Clydesdales are Sabino, but the Sabino gene does not exist in shetland ponies & a couple of other pure breeds.
SABERO...............The most common form of "Overo".
The white areas rise vertically & also present horizontally with this pattern. As the name suggests, this pattern is the result of crossing Frame Overo with Sabino, so therefore, the patterns of both genes blend to form an animal that is generally highly coloured.The white can & often does cross the spine & the mane can be two tone. A Sabero will have a minimum of one spearing stocking, white emanating from UNDERNEATH the belly & continueing up the sides etc. It will commonly have an apron/bonnet or baldy face with the white extending over the muzzle to include the chin & under the jaw. The "medicine hat" colour pattern generally a Sabero, but not always.
SPLASHED WHITE..............This is not a colour, it is a genetic defect
This animal will have vertically (bottom to top) rising white that seems to just stop at a smooth edged barrier. The parents will both be solid coloured & usually Quarter Horses. This defect is NOT related to any of the above coat patterns. A Splashed White is basically a solid horse whose genes have not completed the job. Not only has the defect failed to colour, it also has affected the hearing ability of the horse i.e. deafness is another of the defects it suffers. Both solid parents need to carry the defective gene to produce Splashed White.